Clinical Case Database / Category: Case Based Discussion


Publication details

Sailaja Pisipati MBBS MRCS, Ian Pearce BMedSci BMBS FRCS (Urol)
Foundation Years Journal, volume 1, issue 6, p.19 (123Doc Education, London, October 2007)


Haematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. Up to three red blood cells per high-power microscopic field is considered normal, but anything greater than this is significant and requires investigation.

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Sailaja Pisipati MBBS MRCS

Clinical Fellow
Department of Urology
Manchester Royal Infirmary

Ian Pearce BMedSci BMBS FRCS (Urol) (Corresponding author)

Consultant Urological Surgeon
Department of Urology
Manchester Royal Infirmary
M13 9WL


1.  Brendler B.C. Evaluation of the urologic patient - History, Physical examination and Urine Analysis; Campbell’s Urology; 2002: 133 – 136

2.  Edwards J.T, Dickinson J.A, Natale S. et al. A prospective analysis of the diagnostic yield resulting from the attendance of 4020 patients at a protocol – driven haematuria clinic.

3.  Gregoire M, Fradet Y, Meyer F, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of urinary cytology, and deoxyribonucleic acid flow cytometry and cytology on ladder washings during follow-up for bladder cancer. J Urol. 1997; 157: 1660 – 1664. [PubMed]

4.  Renshaw A A, Nappi D, Weinberg D S. Cytology of grade I papillary transitional cell carcinoma: A comparison of cytologic, architectural and morphometric criteria in cystoscopically obtained urine. Acta Cytol. 1996; 40 : 676 – 682. [PubMed]

5.  Chao, D. Freeland, J.S. Pantuck, J.A. et al. Bladder Cancer 2000: Molecular Markers for the Diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma. Rev Urol. 2001 Spring; 3 (2): 85 – 93.


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About the Clinical Cases Database

T​he Foundation Years Clinical Cases Database is​ a selection of 600 peer-reviewed clinical cases in the field of patient safety and clinical practice, specifically focused on the clinical information needs of junior doctors, based around the Foundation Year Curriculum programme (MMC). The cases have been chosen to align with the Foundation Year Curriculum.

The database is fully searchable, or can be browsed by medical specialty. Abstracts can be read free of charge, however a subscription is required in order to read the complete cases.