Clinical Case Database / Category: Patient Management

The kidney and HIV

Publication details

Fouad Albaaj, Alvin Shrestha
Foundation Years Journal, volume 9, issue 5, p.47 (123Doc Education, London, May 2015)


A 45 year old female, was referred to the Renal outpatient clinic with renal impairment (eGFR 57 ml/minute/1.73m2) and proteinuria, with urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) of 163 mg/mmol. She was asymptomatic, with no systemic symptoms of joint pain, fever, rash or weight loss. Examination was unremarkable, normal jugular venous pressure, normal heart sounds, clear chest and no peripheral oedema.

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Fouad Albaaj

Consultant Nephrologist
Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospital
Birmingham, B18 7QH

Alvin Shrestha (Corresponding author)

CMT doctor
Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospital
Birmingham, B18 7QH


1. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group. KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney inter Suppl. 2013; 3: 1–150.
2. Yin Z, Brown AE, Hughes G et al. HIV in the United Kingdom 2014 Report: data to end 2013. November 2014. Public Health England, London.
3. (cited 16/4/2015)
4. Campbell LJ, Ibrahim F, Fisher M et al. Spectrum of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients. HIV Med. 2009; 10(6):329-36
5. Maggi P, Bartolozzi D, Bonfanti P et al. Renal complications in HIV: between present and future. AIDS Rev. 2012; 14(1):37-53.
6. Lucas GM, Ross MJ, Stock PG et al. Clinical practice guideline for management of chronic kidney disease in patients infected with HIV: 2014 update by the HIV medicine association of the infectious diseases society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2014; 59(9):96-138
7. Stock PG, Barin B, Murphy B et al. Outcomes of kidney transplantation in HIV-infected recipients. N Engl J Med 2010; 363:2004–14.
8. British Transplantation Society. UK guidelines for pancreas and kidney transplantation 2014. (cited 16/4/2015)


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About the Clinical Cases Database

T​he Foundation Years Clinical Cases Database is​ a selection of 600 peer-reviewed clinical cases in the field of patient safety and clinical practice, specifically focused on the clinical information needs of junior doctors, based around the Foundation Year Curriculum programme (MMC). The cases have been chosen to align with the Foundation Year Curriculum.

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